A round-up of results in the April 2022 UT/Texas Politics Project Poll related to the 2022 Texas election

The majority of the April University of Texas / Texas Politics Project poll focused on the many issues currently facing the state and the country, many of which we expect to continue being a large part of the public discussion in the lead-up to the November elections. Taking into account that the general election remians several months in the future, the items in the poll related to the election were designed to assess attitudes toward candidates in the the most prominent upcoming Texas run-offs, and eventually, in the general election. We've compiled some results to these items below with a particular emphasis on the overall views and those among key groups of voters, whether in the upcoming general (e.g. independents, Hispanics, suburban voters), or in the upcoming primary run-offs (e.g. committed partisans, ideologues, and others).

The items in the April poll are primarily comprised of questions that ask respondents whether they hold a favorable or unfavorable impression of each candidate, and the strength of that opinion. We prefer this approach over trial ballots at this point in the election calendar for a few reasons: (1) it is difficult if not impossible (and beyond the scope of this poll) to draw good samples from the extremely small electorate that will vote in run-off elections to take place later this month, and (2) these items provide a clean approach to comparing voter attitudes (and attitudes among different groups of voters) towards the incumbents and their challengers, without forcing what would be in most instances, a premature choice (either because the candidates haven't been finalized and/or because the actual election is still seven months away). In the case of the primaries, we use data that resulted from this approach to compare attitudes (and the scope and extent of non-attitudes) among key groups, – liberal, Black, and Hispanic voters in the case of the Democratic run-offs for Lieutenant Governor and Attorney General, and conservatives and strong Republicans in the case of the GOP run-off for Attorney General.

The one exception we make to this is the race for governor, in which both candidates have been selected by their party and were already well-known to the overall electorate. The sample for this head-to-head match-up between Beto O'Rourke (as with all the other items) was the entire sample of registered voters, given the uncertainly around estimating what a population of  "likely voters" should look like this far from Election Day.

To jump to survey results related to a specifica race, please use the navigation below. To see all the results from the most recently released University of Texas / Texas Politics Project poll, check out our latest poll page. Toplines, crosstabs, the methodology statement and a data file of this, and all UT/TXP polls can be found in the data archive.

The race for Governor
The race for Lieutenant Governor
The race for Attorney General
Congressional Trial Ballot
Texas Legislative Trial Ballot

The race for Governor

Governor Greg Abbott enters May right-side up on his job approval numbers for the second time this year, but hasn't been above 50% since April of 2020 in the early days of the pandemic. Abbott remains underwater with independents who, if the election turns tight, will become a key group in determining the next governor.

Loading chart...
PollApproveDisapproveNeither/Don't Know
November 201542%29%28%
February 201641%29%30%
June 201642%31%27%
October 201642%33%25%
February 201745%33%23%
June 201745%38%16%
October 201748%33%19%
February 201846%31%23%
June 201847%36%18%
October 201852%32%17%
February 201951%32%17%
June 201951%31%18%
October 201952%28%21%
February 202048%34%18%
April 202056%32%13%
June 202049%39%13%
October 202047%40%14%
February 202146%39%15%
March 202145%43%11%
April 202143%45%13%
June 202144%44%11%
August 202141%50%9%
October 202143%48%10%
February 202244%42%15%
April 202247%41%13%

Loading chart...
PollApproveDisapproveNeither/Don't Know
November 201539%28%44%
February 201641%30%29%
June 201634%39%27%
October 201631%39%29%
February 201723%48%29%
June 201733%44%24%
October 201745%30%26%
February 201838%20%41%
June 201839%34%26%
October 201841%32%27%
February 201954%23%23%
June 201942%29%30%
October 201943%26%31%
February 202038%30%31%
April 202034%41%25%
June 202041%36%23%
October 202033%39%29%
February 202133%33%34%
March 202134%36%30%
April 202134%37%28%
June 202141%44%15%
August 202130%52%18%
October 202127%57%16%
February 202242%43%16%
April 202233%41%26%

In the trial ballot item assessing preferences between Greg Abbott and Beto O'Rourke in the fall's marquee match-up, the poll finds Abbott maintaining his lead over O'Rourke, 48% to 37%. This result is driven by partisans and the partisan distribution in the state, but with the campaign barely underway, observers should watch the opinions of some key groups in the electorate -- Hispanics, suburban voters, and independents -- over the coming months to see whether this race will become more competitive, and if so, how much more competitive.

Loading chart...
categoryTotal
Greg Abbott48%
Beto O’Rourke37%
Someone else7%
Haven’t thought about it enough to have an opinion9%

Loading chart...
CategoryDemocratIndependentRepublican
Greg Abbott6%40%84%
Beto O’Rourke82%26%3%
Someone else4%18%5%
Haven’t thought about it enough to have an opinion7%17%7%

Loading chart...
CategoryWhiteBlackHispanic
Greg Abbott60%13%36%
Beto O’Rourke29%62%45%
Someone else5%9%8%
Haven’t thought about it enough to have an opinion6%17%11%

Loading chart...
CategoryUrbanSuburbanRural
Greg Abbott36%48%65%
Beto O’Rourke47%37%21%
Someone else8%6%8%
Haven’t thought about it enough to have an opinion10%9%6%

And here's a look at the favorability ratings for both Abbott and O'Rourke among key groups.

Loading chart...
categoryTotal
Very favorable22%
Somewhat favorable24%
Neither favorable nor unfavorable10%
Somewhat unfavorable7%
Very unfavorable33%
Don’t know/No opinion3%

Loading chart...
categoryTotal
Very favorable19%
Somewhat favorable19%
Neither favorable nor unfavorable10%
Somewhat unfavorable6%
Very unfavorable41%
Don’t know/No opinion5%

Loading chart...
CategoryDemocratIndependentRepublican
Very favorable2%10%43%
Somewhat favorable10%23%37%
Neither favorable nor unfavorable7%25%8%
Somewhat unfavorable9%8%6%
Very unfavorable70%29%4%
Don’t know/No opinion1%5%3%

Loading chart...
CategoryDemocratIndependentRepublican
Very favorable45%4%2%
Somewhat favorable36%16%5%
Neither favorable nor unfavorable11%19%7%
Somewhat unfavorable5%7%7%
Very unfavorable1%45%75%
Don’t know/No opinion3%9%4%

Loading chart...
CategoryWhiteBlackHispanic
Very favorable29%5%16%
Somewhat favorable27%17%23%
Neither favorable nor unfavorable9%9%11%
Somewhat unfavorable7%10%9%
Very unfavorable26%51%38%
Don’t know/No opinion2%8%3%

Loading chart...
CategoryWhiteBlackHispanic
Very favorable14%35%23%
Somewhat favorable15%27%24%
Neither favorable nor unfavorable9%15%12%
Somewhat unfavorable7%8%6%
Very unfavorable52%4%31%
Don’t know/No opinion3%12%4%

Loading chart...
CategoryUrbanSuburbanRural
Very favorable17%24%27%
Somewhat favorable21%23%32%
Neither favorable nor unfavorable11%9%10%
Somewhat unfavorable5%8%8%
Very unfavorable42%33%20%
Don’t know/No opinion3%3%4%

Loading chart...
CategoryUrbanSuburbanRural
Very favorable26%18%9%
Somewhat favorable22%20%11%
Neither favorable nor unfavorable13%9%10%
Somewhat unfavorable5%7%7%
Very unfavorable28%42%57%
Don’t know/No opinion5%4%6%

To jump back to the table of contents, click here.

The race for Lieutenant Governor

About as many Texas approve as disapprove of the job Dan Patrick is doing as Lieutenant Govenor, with increasingly sharp differences between partisans.

Loading chart...
PollApproveDisapproveNeither/Don't Know
November 201529%26%44%
February 201627%27%46%
June 201631%30%39%
October 201631%31%38%
February 201732%31%38%
June 201734%36%29%
October 201736%31%32%
February 201836%33%31%
June 201836%34%30%
October 201844%31%25%
February 201942%31%26%
June 201941%31%29%
October 201939%32%29%
February 202039%35%25%
April 202040%36%24%
June 202039%38%23%
October 202037%37%25%
February 202137%36%27%
March 202137%37%27%
April 202135%39%26%
June 202136%37%27%
August 202133%42%25%
October 202135%39%25%
February 202233%34%32%
April 202237%36%26%

Loading chart...
PollApproveDisapproveNeither/Don't Know
November 201550%7%44%
February 201647%10%43%
June 201654%9%37%
October 201656%10%34%
February 201759%6%36%
June 201764%11%25%
October 201762%9%30%
February 201867%7%26%
June 201864%7%26%
October 201877%6%17%
February 201975%6%19%
June 201968%6%25%
October 201967%9%23%
February 202072%9%20%
April 202070%10%20%
June 202072%8%20%
October 202066%10%24%
February 202165%11%24%
March 202164%11%26%
April 202163%10%27%
June 202165%7%28%
August 202161%11%28%
October 202167%9%25%
February 202257%10%33%
April 202266%8%27%

Loading chart...
PollApproveDisapproveNeither/Don't Know
November 20158%50%42%
February 201610%44%46%
June 201610%55%34%
October 20167%52%41%
February 20176%55%39%
June 20176%63%32%
October 201710%58%32%
February 20189%61%30%
June 20188%62%29%
October 201810%63%28%
February 20199%62%30%
June 201910%60%30%
October 201911%55%34%
February 20207%64%28%
April 202010%65%25%
June 20206%71%23%
October 20208%67%25%
February 20217%70%23%
March 202110%67%24%
April 20215%75%20%
June 20216%71%23%
August 20215%78%17%
October 20213%75%22%
February 202211%62%27%
April 20227%73%20%

Asked whether they have a favorable or unfavorable opinion of Dan Patrick, 35% registered a favorable opinion, 35% an unfavorable one.

Loading chart...
categoryTotal
Very favorable16%
Somewhat favorable19%
Neither favorable nor unfavorable15%
Somewhat unfavorable7%
Very unfavorable28%
Don’t know/No opinion15%

Loading chart...
CategoryDemocratIndependentRepublican
Very favorable3%8%29%
Somewhat favorable4%17%32%
Neither favorable nor unfavorable11%16%18%
Somewhat unfavorable8%10%5%
Very unfavorable60%25%3%
Don’t know/No opinion15%25%13%

Loading chart...
CategoryWhiteBlackHispanic
Very favorable21%5%11%
Somewhat favorable23%6%12%
Neither favorable nor unfavorable14%16%20%
Somewhat unfavorable6%12%6%
Very unfavorable24%40%31%
Don’t know/No opinion13%20%21%

Loading chart...
CategoryUrbanSuburbanRural
Very favorable9%19%18%
Somewhat favorable17%18%23%
Neither favorable nor unfavorable14%16%16%
Somewhat unfavorable7%7%7%
Very unfavorable35%28%18%
Don’t know/No opinion18%13%17%

On the Democratic side, Mike Collier and Michelle Beckley suffer from the same challenges plaguing all Democratic challengers not named "Beto":  low name recognition in one of the largest states in the country. Despite most voters having no opinion of either, attitudes toward both are rather comparable among groups key to the Democratic coalition, with Collier slightly better positioned, likely due to this being his third statewide run in as many cycles.

Loading chart...
categoryTotal
Very favorable4%
Somewhat favorable9%
Neither favorable nor unfavorable20%
Somewhat unfavorable3%
Very unfavorable8%
Don’t know/No opinion56%

 

Loading chart...
categoryTotal
Very favorable2%
Somewhat favorable8%
Neither favorable nor unfavorable18%
Somewhat unfavorable4%
Very unfavorable7%
Don’t know/No opinion61%

Loading chart...
CategoryDemocratIndependentRepublican
Very favorable10%0%1%
Somewhat favorable15%4%7%
Neither favorable nor unfavorable18%21%21%
Somewhat unfavorable3%2%5%
Very unfavorable8%8%7%
Don’t know/No opinion47%64%59%

Loading chart...
CategoryDemocratIndependentRepublican
Very favorable5%0%1%
Somewhat favorable12%3%5%
Neither favorable nor unfavorable15%18%20%
Somewhat unfavorable2%6%5%
Very unfavorable7%7%7%
Don’t know/No opinion59%66%61%

Loading chart...
CategoryLean DemocratNot very strong DemocratStrong Democrat
Very favorable6%3%14%
Somewhat favorable12%10%18%
Neither favorable nor unfavorable17%25%15%
Somewhat unfavorable3%2%3%
Very unfavorable7%12%7%
Don’t know/No opinion57%47%44%

Loading chart...
CategoryLean DemocratNot very strong DemocratStrong Democrat
Very favorable3%0%7%
Somewhat favorable6%13%14%
Neither favorable nor unfavorable22%20%10%
Somewhat unfavorable3%3%1%
Very unfavorable6%13%5%
Don’t know/No opinion60%50%62%

Loading chart...
CategoryLiberalsModeratesConservatives
Very favorable11%1%2%
Somewhat favorable15%9%6%
Neither favorable nor unfavorable18%23%18%
Somewhat unfavorable2%3%5%
Very unfavorable8%7%7%
Don’t know/No opinion45%55%63%

Loading chart...
CategoryLiberalsModeratesConservatives
Very favorable5%1%1%
Somewhat favorable12%9%4%
Neither favorable nor unfavorable15%21%18%
Somewhat unfavorable5%2%5%
Very unfavorable6%9%7%
Don’t know/No opinion57%59%66%

Loading chart...
CategoryLean liberalSomewhat liberalExtremely liberal
Very favorable7%12%14%
Somewhat favorable7%16%20%
Neither favorable nor unfavorable31%18%10%
Somewhat unfavorable2%3%0%
Very unfavorable7%8%10%
Don’t know/No opinion46%42%47%

Loading chart...
CategoryLean liberalSomewhat liberalExtremely liberal
Very favorable1%5%7%
Somewhat favorable11%10%15%
Neither favorable nor unfavorable22%15%9%
Somewhat unfavorable9%4%4%
Very unfavorable1%6%10%
Don’t know/No opinion56%59%55%

Loading chart...
CategoryWhiteBlackHispanic
Very favorable5%6%2%
Somewhat favorable9%11%9%
Neither favorable nor unfavorable20%18%22%
Somewhat unfavorable3%5%2%
Very unfavorable5%13%9%
Don’t know/No opinion58%48%55%

Loading chart...
CategoryWhiteBlackHispanic
Very favorable2%3%2%
Somewhat favorable9%9%6%
Neither favorable nor unfavorable18%15%22%
Somewhat unfavorable3%5%6%
Very unfavorable5%10%7%
Don’t know/No opinion63%58%57%

To jump back to the table of contents, click here.

The race for Attorney General

In the run-off between current Attorney General Ken Paxton and Land Commissioner George P. Bush, the incumbent looks to enjoy advantages among key groups in the electorate, particularly the more committed Republicans and more ideologically conservative voters likely to make up the bulk of the run-off electorate.

Loading chart...
categoryTotal
Very favorable16%
Somewhat favorable19%
Neither favorable nor unfavorable14%
Somewhat unfavorable7%
Very unfavorable27%
Don’t know/No opinion17%

Loading chart...
categoryTotal
Very favorable7%
Somewhat favorable21%
Neither favorable nor unfavorable21%
Somewhat unfavorable16%
Very unfavorable19%
Don’t know/No opinion15%

Loading chart...
CategoryDemocratIndependentRepublican
Very favorable2%9%30%
Somewhat favorable4%15%33%
Neither favorable nor unfavorable9%20%17%
Somewhat unfavorable9%9%4%
Very unfavorable59%22%3%
Don’t know/No opinion17%25%12%

Loading chart...
CategoryDemocratIndependentRepublican
Very favorable5%6%10%
Somewhat favorable14%12%30%
Neither favorable nor unfavorable18%28%22%
Somewhat unfavorable24%9%12%
Very unfavorable25%20%14%
Don’t know/No opinion13%25%12%

Loading chart...
CategoryLean RepublicanNot very strong RepublicanStrong Republican
Very favorable26%13%40%
Somewhat favorable35%31%32%
Neither favorable nor unfavorable13%29%15%
Somewhat unfavorable6%4%3%
Very unfavorable6%4%2%
Don’t know/No opinion14%19%9%

Loading chart...
CategoryLean RepublicanNot very strong RepublicanStrong Republican
Very favorable9%8%11%
Somewhat favorable22%41%29%
Neither favorable nor unfavorable26%18%21%
Somewhat unfavorable17%8%12%
Very unfavorable19%8%13%
Don’t know/No opinion8%16%14%

Loading chart...
CategoryLiberalsModeratesConservatives
Very favorable2%6%32%
Somewhat favorable4%14%32%
Neither favorable nor unfavorable7%21%15%
Somewhat unfavorable6%10%5%
Very unfavorable65%27%4%
Don’t know/No opinion17%22%12%

Loading chart...
CategoryLiberalsModeratesConservatives
Very favorable3%8%9%
Somewhat favorable11%18%29%
Neither favorable nor unfavorable15%28%21%
Somewhat unfavorable23%15%13%
Very unfavorable32%13%14%
Don’t know/No opinion16%19%13%

Loading chart...
CategoryLean conservativeSomewhat conservativeExtremely conservative
Very favorable12%28%48%
Somewhat favorable27%38%28%
Neither favorable nor unfavorable19%15%12%
Somewhat unfavorable7%6%2%
Very unfavorable11%3%2%
Don’t know/No opinion23%10%9%

Loading chart...
CategoryLean conservativeSomewhat conservativeExtremely conservative
Very favorable5%10%12%
Somewhat favorable35%29%26%
Neither favorable nor unfavorable26%24%16%
Somewhat unfavorable12%11%16%
Very unfavorable11%12%19%
Don’t know/No opinion11%14%11%

Also troubling, for both Bush's chances, and the Democrats looking to unseat Paxton, is that voters haven't expressed a ton of knowledge or interest in the legal problems still hovering over the Attorney General. For Bush, the problem extends to the fact that Republicans are paying even less attention than Democrats

Loading chart...
categoryTotal
A lot18%
Some38%
Not very much23%
Nothing at all21%

Loading chart...
CategoryDemocratIndependentRepublican
A lot28%12%12%
Some35%40%41%
Not very much19%16%28%
Nothing at all18%32%19%

On the Democrats side, Rochelle Garza and Joe Jaworski suffer from the same challenges plaguing other Democratic challengers, low name recognition in one of the largest state's in the country. Despite most voters having no opinion of either, attitudes toward both are rather comparable among groups key to the Democratic coalition.

Loading chart...
categoryTotal
Very favorable3%
Somewhat favorable7%
Neither favorable nor unfavorable19%
Somewhat unfavorable4%
Very unfavorable7%
Don’t know/No opinion59%

Loading chart...
categoryTotal
Very favorable4%
Somewhat favorable7%
Neither favorable nor unfavorable20%
Somewhat unfavorable3%
Very unfavorable7%
Don’t know/No opinion59%

Loading chart...
CategoryDemocratIndependentRepublican
Very favorable7%1%1%
Somewhat favorable13%5%4%
Neither favorable nor unfavorable16%18%21%
Somewhat unfavorable3%4%5%
Very unfavorable5%10%8%
Don’t know/No opinion57%62%59%

Loading chart...
CategoryDemocratIndependentRepublican
Very favorable9%1%1%
Somewhat favorable12%3%4%
Neither favorable nor unfavorable16%20%22%
Somewhat unfavorable3%3%4%
Very unfavorable7%5%8%
Don’t know/No opinion52%67%61%

Loading chart...
CategoryLean DemocratNot very strong DemocratStrong Democrat
Very favorable3%0%11%
Somewhat favorable6%11%16%
Neither favorable nor unfavorable18%23%12%
Somewhat unfavorable4%3%2%
Very unfavorable5%8%4%
Don’t know/No opinion64%55%55%

Loading chart...
CategoryLean DemocratNot very strong DemocratStrong Democrat
Very favorable6%0%14%
Somewhat favorable8%6%17%
Neither favorable nor unfavorable16%26%13%
Somewhat unfavorable6%2%2%
Very unfavorable6%12%6%
Don’t know/No opinion57%55%49%

Loading chart...
CategoryLiberalsModeratesConservatives
Very favorable8%1%2%
Somewhat favorable13%8%4%
Neither favorable nor unfavorable16%21%19%
Somewhat unfavorable3%5%5%
Very unfavorable5%7%9%
Don’t know/No opinion56%58%62%

Loading chart...
CategoryLiberalsModeratesConservatives
Very favorable11%2%1%
Somewhat favorable12%7%4%
Neither favorable nor unfavorable16%23%19%
Somewhat unfavorable4%3%3%
Very unfavorable7%6%7%
Don’t know/No opinion50%58%66%

Loading chart...
CategoryLean liberalSomewhat liberalExtremely liberal
Very favorable1%8%13%
Somewhat favorable11%17%9%
Neither favorable nor unfavorable21%15%14%
Somewhat unfavorable6%1%3%
Very unfavorable3%4%7%
Don’t know/No opinion59%56%54%

Loading chart...
CategoryLean liberalSomewhat liberalExtremely liberal
Very favorable3%14%13%
Somewhat favorable8%14%13%
Neither favorable nor unfavorable22%17%12%
Somewhat unfavorable8%2%3%
Very unfavorable6%6%8%
Don’t know/No opinion53%46%51%

Loading chart...
CategoryWhiteBlackHispanic
Very favorable4%4%3%
Somewhat favorable8%11%5%
Neither favorable nor unfavorable18%14%25%
Somewhat unfavorable3%9%3%
Very unfavorable7%6%6%
Don’t know/No opinion60%56%57%

Loading chart...
CategoryWhiteBlackHispanic
Very favorable5%3%2%
Somewhat favorable7%11%5%
Neither favorable nor unfavorable19%19%24%
Somewhat unfavorable3%3%4%
Very unfavorable5%11%7%
Don’t know/No opinion60%54%58%

To jump back to the table of contents, click here.

Congressional Trial Ballot

The U.S. Congressional trial ballot found the generic Republican candidate leading the generic Democratic candidate 48% to 39% among registered voters, with 13% undecided.

Loading chart...
categoryTotal
Republican candidate48%
Democratic candidate39%
Haven't thought enough about it to have an opinion13%

Loading chart...
CategoryDemocratIndependentRepublican
Republican candidate2%34%91%
Democratic candidate92%16%2%
Haven't thought enough about it to have an opinion6%50%6%

Loading chart...
CategoryWhiteBlackHispanic
Republican candidate61%9%37%
Democratic candidate29%70%48%
Haven't thought enough about it to have an opinion9%21%15%

Loading chart...
CategoryUrbanSuburbanRural
Republican candidate34%50%65%
Democratic candidate55%38%21%
Haven't thought enough about it to have an opinion11%13%15%

Congressional approval remains low, with only 20% of Texans approving of the job Congress is doing while 56% disapprove, 37% strongly. Only 40% of Democrats approve of the Democratically controlled congress, while 76% of Republicans disapprove (54% strongly). More troubling for Democrats in Texas, 65% of independents disapprove of the job congress is doing, with a majority, 50%, disapproving strongly.

Loading chart...
categoryTotal
Approve strongly3%
Approve somewhat17%
Neither approve nor disapprove20%
Disapprove somewhat19%
Disapprove strongly37%
Don't know3%

Loading chart...
CategoryDemocratIndependentRepublican
Approve strongly6%0%1%
Approve somewhat34%4%8%
Neither approve nor disapprove27%24%12%
Disapprove somewhat18%15%22%
Disapprove strongly14%50%54%
Don't know2%6%3%

Loading chart...
CategoryWhiteBlackHispanic
Approve strongly2%10%2%
Approve somewhat15%26%20%
Neither approve nor disapprove14%31%26%
Disapprove somewhat23%11%15%
Disapprove strongly42%17%33%
Don't know3%5%4%

Loading chart...
CategoryUrbanSuburbanRural
Approve strongly7%2%1%
Approve somewhat23%15%14%
Neither approve nor disapprove23%20%15%
Disapprove somewhat15%21%20%
Disapprove strongly30%39%45%
Don't know3%2%5%

To jump back to the table of contents, click here.

Texas Legislative Trial Ballot

The Texas legislative trial ballot found the generic Republican candidate leading the generic Democratic candidate 47% to 39% among registered voters, with 13% undecided.

Loading chart...
categoryTotal
Republican candidate47%
Democratic candidate39%
Haven't thought enough about it to have an opinion13%

Loading chart...
CategoryDemocratIndependentRepublican
Republican candidate3%31%90%
Democratic candidate90%18%3%
Haven't thought enough about it to have an opinion7%51%7%

Loading chart...
CategoryWhiteBlackHispanic
Republican candidate61%7%37%
Democratic candidate30%67%49%
Haven't thought enough about it to have an opinion9%27%14%

Loading chart...
CategoryUrbanSuburbanRural
Republican candidate32%50%63%
Democratic candidate54%38%22%
Haven't thought enough about it to have an opinion14%12%15%

To jump back to the table of contents, click here.

Subscribe to the Texas Politics Project Email List

* indicates required